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System Overview

In computer science, digital image processing is the use of a digital computer to process digital images through an algorithm. As a subcategory or field of digital signal processing, digital image processing has many advantages over analog image processing.
It allows a much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as the build-up of noise and distortion during processing

Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographs, traditional photo-chemical photographs, or illustrations. Traditional analog image editing is known as photo retouching,

using tools such as an airbrush to modify photographs or editing illustrations with any traditional art medium. Graphic software programs, which can be broadly grouped into vector graphics editors, raster graphics editors, and 3D modelers,
are the primary tools with which a user may manipulate, enhance, and transform images. Many image editing programs are also used to render or create computer art from scratch.

In addition to the capability of changing the images' brightness and/or contrast in a non-linear fashion, most current image editors provide an opportunity to manipulate the images' gamma value.

Gamma correction is particularly useful for bringing details that would be hard to see on most computer monitors out of shadows. In some image editing software, this is called "curves", usually, a tool found in the color menu, and no reference to "gamma" is used anywhere in the program or the program documentation. Strictly speaking,

the curves tool usually does more than simple gamma correction, since one can construct complex curves with multiple inflection points, but when no dedicated gamma correction tool is provided, it can achieve the same effect.

Raster images are stored in a computer in the form of a grid of picture elements, or pixels. These pixels contain the image's color and brightness information.

Image editors can change the pixels to enhance the image in many ways. The pixels can be changed as a group, or individually, by the sophisticated algorithms within the image editors.
This article mostly refers to bitmap graphics editors, which are often used to alter photographs and other raster graphics

YCbCr, Y′CbCr, or Y Pb/Cb Pr/Cr, also written as YCBCR or Y'CBCR, is a family of color spaces used as a part of the color image pipeline in video and digital photography systems.
Y is the luma component and CB and CR are the blue-difference and red-difference chroma components. Y′ (with prime) is distinguished from Y, which is luminance, meaning that light intensity is nonlinearly encoded based on gamma corrected RGB primaries.

Y′CbCr color spaces are defined by a mathematical coordinate transformation from an associated RGB color space. If the underlying RGB color space is absolute, the Y′CbCr color space is an absolute color space as well; conversely, if the RGB space is ill-defined, so is Y′CbCr.

Another feature common to many graphics applications is that of Layers, which are analogous to sheets of transparent acetate (each containing separate elements that make up a combined picture),
stacked on top of each other, each capable of being individually positioned, altered and blended with the layers below, without affecting any of the elements on the other layers.

This is a fundamental workflow which has become the norm for the majority of programs on the market today, and enables maximum flexibility for the user while maintaining non-destructive editing principles and ease of use.

When selecting a raster image that is not rectangular, it requires separating the edges from the background, also known as silhouetting.

This is the digital-analog of cutting out the image from a physical picture. Clipping paths may be used to add silhouetted images to vector graphics or page layout files that retain vector data. Alpha compositing, allows for soft translucent edges when selecting images.

There are a number of ways to silhouette an image with soft edges, including selecting the image or its background by sampling similar colors, selecting the edges by raster tracing, or converting a clipping path to a raster selection.

Once the image is selected, it may be copied and pasted into another section of the same file, or into a separate file.

The selection may also be saved in what is known as an alpha channel.